Israel, since its independence in 1948, has fought six recognized wars. These wars mostly occurred between Israeli forces and various Arab forces. Other than these wars, Israel also engaged in a series of armed conflicts and large-scale military operations.
The six recognized wars include;
- 1948 Arab-Israeli war also known as the War of Independence
- 1956 war, the Suez Crisis
- 1967 Six-day war
- 1973 Yom Kippur war
- 1982 Lebanon war
- 2006 Second Lebanon war
Besides these wars, other conflicts and military operations include;
- 1950-60 Palestinian Fedayeen insurgency.
- 1968-1970 The War of Attrition
- 1987 First Palestinian Intifada
- 2000 Second Palestinian Intifada
- Military conflicts with Hamas, the Palestinian resistance group, includes 2008, 2012,2014 and 2021
History of Arab-Israeli wars:
Jews were living as a minority in Palestine under the Ottoman Empire before World War l. Ottoman Empire was one of the longest and mightiest dynasties in world history.
In the first world war, the geopolitical landscape of the Middle East dramatically changed and most of the area came under British rule.
At the height of the war, Arthur James Balfour, a British Foreign Secretary, submitted a letter of intent to support the establishment of an independent Jewish state in Palestine. It was known as the Balfour Declaration.
World War l ended in 1918, with Great Britain taking control over what became known as modern-day Israel, Palestine, and Jordan. Later the Balfour declaration was approved by the League of Nations in 1922 and Jews were formally allocated the dedicated space to live in Palestine. While the Arab countries strongly opposed the Balfour Declaration. They were concerned that the Jewish state would mean the subjugation of Palestinians.
After the second world war, the United Nations approved a plan to establish the Jewish state in Palestine in 1947 and give the Jews a separate independent identity. But again the Arabs rejected it. While Jerusalem city has been given the status of an international city. This means the Muslims, Jews, and Christians are free to pray in their holy sites and they all have equal rights and ownership of the city.
The city of Jerusalem is considered sacred for both Jews and Muslims. It contains the Temple Mount, which includes the holy sites Al-Aqsa Mosque, the Western Wall, the Dome, and more.
Israel has officially declared an independent state with David Ben-Gurion as Prime Minister, the head of the Jewish state.
After the establishment of an independent Jewish state in Palestine, there exists a high level of tension between the Jews and Arabs and that tension resulted in wars and conflicts that span over eight decades. Because originally the Palestinians are the owners of this land not Jews and they never recognized Israel as a state.
In recent years, most of the conflicts have centered around the Golan Heights, the Gaza Strip, and the West Bank.
Golan Heights is a rocky plateau between Syria and Israel. The Gaza Strip is a land of 363 square km that exists along the Mediterranean sea between Egypt and Israel. The West Bank is a territory that divides part of Israel and Jordan.
1948 Arab-Israeli war:
Just after the official declaration of the Jewish state in 1948 in Palestine and the end of the British Mandate, clashes broke out between the Jews and the Arabs.
Five Arab countries including Iraq, Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and Egypt entered their forces in Palestine. The invading forces took control of the Palestinian areas and attacked Israeli forces to take back control of the newly stated Israeli territory.
The war was prolonged for 10 months interrupted by several truce periods. The Israeli forces suffered heavy losses during their War of Independence.
The 1948 war ended in 1949, resulting in the area controlled by Israel that the UN General Assembly Resolution 181 recommended for the Jewish state.
After the establishment of the new Jewish state, about 700,000 Palestinians were expelled or fled from their homes in the area that became Israel now. These Palestinians became refugees from the owners and the event is referred to as the Nakba ‘The Catastrophe’. Around 260,000 Jews moved to Israel during and after the war.
At the end of the war, most of the important areas were still controlled by the Arab States. The West Bank became part of Jordan. While the Gaza Strip was controlled by the Egyptians.
1950-60 Palestinian Fedayeen insurgency:
During the 1950s to 1960s after the 1948 war, the Palestinian resistance, the Fedayeen were active to attack Israeli forces and the counter Military operations were done by Israel.
These Fedayeen were guerrillas from Syria, Egypt, and Jordan. At the beginning of the insurgency, Fedayeen were attacked to access the land and agricultural products that they had lost during the 1948 war. Later these attacks were shifted towards Israeli armed forces. Israel undertook retaliatory actions, by targeting fedayeen.
1956 war, The Suez Crisis:
Strong tension exists between the Israeli forces and the Arab states after the 1948 war.
In 1956, Gamal Abdel Nasser, the Egyptian President, overtook and nationalized the Suez Canal, a vital shipping waterway that connects Europe and Asia by linking the Red Sea to the Mediterranean Sea. The canal was largely owned by British and French concerns. The canal was under the Suez Canal Company that was controlled by the French and British.
The reason behind the act of Nasser to nationalize the canal was in response to the American and British decision not to finance Egypt’s Aswan High Dam, as they had promised. The decision to block the funds for the dam was made due to Egypt’s growing ties with the Soviets and Czechoslovakia. Britannica reported.
Nasser declared martial law in the canal zone and seized control of the Suez Canal Company intending to collect tolls from ships passing through the canal to construct a dam.
Britain and France responded by making a deal with Israel. Israel attacked Egypt’s Sinai Peninsula while France and Britain then intervened as peacemakers and took control of the canal.
Until October 1956, Israel invaded the Sinai Peninsula by capturing Gaza, Rafah, and Al-Arish and taking thousands of prisoners.
In December 1956, the UN Emergency Force was deployed in the area and the Israeli Forces withdrew in 1957.
Later, the dam was completed in 1970 with a cost of $1 billion. It has an annual gross capacity of 5.97 trillion cubic feet of water and contributes enormously to the economy of Egypt.
1967, Six-Day War:
Israeli and Arab forces fell into war the third time in June 1967.
The war started with the surprise attack of the Israeli Air Force on Egyptian airfields and destroyed the Egyptian Air Force on the ground.
Many background factors played a role in the starting of this war.
According to one point of view, the war started due to the Arabs’ aggression. Egypt, which lost the Sinai Peninsula and the Suez Canal in the 1956 war, mobilized its troops to the Peninsula and demanded the UN General Assembly to withdraw Emergency forces from the area. After taking control of the area, they closed the Straits of Tiran to Israeli shipping. And on the other side, Syria intensified its bombardment of Israeli Villages from Golan Heights. These factors resulted in the surprise Israeli attack on the Arab Air Forces.
Other points of view support that the war started due to Israeli surprise attacks. The ties between Egypt and Jordan were not good. But surprisingly King Hussein of Jordan flew to Egypt and agreed to place his forces under overall Egyptian command. The agreement came after the Israeli forces destroyed the 13 planes of Syria in the air over Golan Heights. This forces Egypt and Jordan to make a joint force against Israel. Israel saw the agreement as a threat to its existence and made a surprise attack on the Egyptian Air Force and destroyed it all on the ground when they were not ready.
After destroying the Egyptian Air Force on the ground, the cluster of Israeli planes also bombed the Jordanian and Syrian airfields.
Within the short time of six days, the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) overran the whole Sinai Peninsula up to the Suez Canal, Gaza Strip, took the entire west bank of the Jordan river, and also captured the great part of the Golan Heights that was previously under the Syrian control. While the old city of East Jerusalem came under the sole control of Israel.
776 Israeli soldiers died during the Six-Day war, according to the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. While the losses on the Arab side had no official numbers.
On June 11, the United Nation’s brokered ceasefire took effect throughout the three combat zones. Israel had almost doubled its size as a result of the six days of fighting.
The UN Security Council called for the withdrawal of Israeli forces from all the occupied regions but Israel declined. The UN Security Council adopted Resolution 242 calling “respect for and acknowledgment of the sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence of every State in the area and their right to live in peace within secure and recognized boundaries free from threats or acts of force.”
Israel said Gaza Strip, the West Bank, the Golan Heights, and the Sinai Peninsula would be returned in exchange for Arab recognition of the right of Israel to exist and guarantees against future attacks.
Arab League’s session in Sudan in 1967, adopted a resolution of “Three No’s” of Khartoum. No Peace, No Negotiations, No Recognition of Israel. It is also known as The Khartoum Resolution.
Egypt however in 1982, would eventually negotiate and make a peace deal with Israel and the Sinai Peninsula was returned to Egypt in exchange for full diplomatic recognition of Israel. Later on, the East Bank of river Jordan was returned to Jordan by Israel after the 1990s “Land for Peace” talks of Jordan with the Jewish state. Israel left the Gaza Strip in 2005 while the part of the Golan Heights is still under their control.
The 1967 war was the most prominent victory of Jews in Israel war history.
1968-70, The War of Attrition:
This limited war was fought between Israeli and Egyptian forces. Egypt aims to recapture the Sinai Peninsula that it had lost during the 1967 war.
Egypt with the help of the Soviet Union strengthened its defenses and the new air defense systems were deployed. In the beginning, Israel suffered heavy losses but as the fighting continued, the Israelis destroyed their air defense systems and launched deep penetration raids in the Neil valley and delta. But the Soviets helped the Egyptian Air Force to recover losses during their war of Attrition. After the involvement of the Soviets, Israel stopped the air raids. Finally, with the help of the US, the ceasefire agreement was accepted by both sides in 1970. Reported by Britannica.
1973, Yom Kippur War:
In 1973, Syrian and Egyptian forces launched airstrikes against Israel on the Holy Day of Yom Kippur. The fighting went on for two weeks.
According to the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs, it came almost as a complete surprise, and warning notice was given too late for an orderly call-up of the reserves before zero hour.
The Syrian and Egyptian armies showed more aggressiveness and fighting ability than in previous wars. Egyptian forces crossed the Suez Canal and sort themselves along its entire length on the East bank. While the Syrian army overran the Golan Heights and came within sight of the Sea of Galilee.
Israel fought back and within a few days, the IDF was on the West Bank of the Suez Canal and within artillery range of the airfields around the Syrian capital, Damascus.
The war came to an end on October 26. Israel signed a ceasefire agreement with Egypt and Syria.
Israel suffered heavy casualties during the 1973 war. There were 2688 Jewish soldiers dead beside the loss of military equipment on a large scale. Too many Israeli airplanes were lost to Syrian air defense Russian-made SAM missiles. About 165 Israeli tanks were also destroyed. Only the navy performed well and sank 34 enemy vessels without any loss. The overall deterrent capacity of the Israeli forces was greatly reduced.
It was also considered as a faulted intelligence that fails to sound the alarm in time. The Chief of Staff of Israeli forces, David Elazar, and Chief of Intelligence have resigned due to intelligence failure and late response to the incoming threat.
On March 26, 1979, Israel and Egypt signed an agreement to end the state of war that existed between two countries for almost 30 years. As a result of the peace treaty, the whole Sinai Peninsula came under Egyptian control while Egypt recognizes Israel’s right to exist.
In 1979, after the Egyptian peace agreement with Jews, Syria voted with other Arab states to expel Egypt from the Arab league.
1982, Lebanon War:
The 1982 Lebanon War was also known as ‘Operation Peace for Galilee’ or ‘First Lebanon War’ or ‘The Invasion’ in Lebanon.
In 1982, Israel attacked Lebanon. Israel bombed Beirut (the Capital of Lebanon) and southern Lebanon where the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) had many hideouts.
Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) is an organization founded in 1964 with the aim of the liberation of Palestine through armed struggle.
Syrian government fully supports Lebanon to provide it with military weapons, air defense units, and warplanes.
The reason for the start of the Lebanon War was the assassination attempt of a group of armed men from Abu Nidal’s organization of Israel’s Ambassador to the United Kingdom, Shlomo Argov. The Israeli PM, Menachem Begin blamed PLO for the incident and used the incident to wage war or to invade Lebanon.
Israeli forces attacked Southern Lebanon and its forces reached the outskirts of Beirut which were encircled. After the long delay and continuous Israeli bombardment of west Beirut, PLO left the city with the aid of US Special Envoy Philip Habib and the Protection of international peacekeepers.
According to the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs, for a short period, the Syrians were involved in the war not on the Golan Heights but in Lebanon itself where the Syrians had a considerable expeditionary force. There were 19 Syrian air defense batteries of Russian SAMs (Surface to Air Missiles) 2, 3, and 6 were deployed in Lebanon to defend its air space from Israeli warplanes. 14 air defense batteries were destroyed and 4 were damaged by Israel and Syria lost 29 MiG fighter planes in one day.
It was the most concentrated air battle, 200 planes from both sides came in front of each other within a box of 50×50 km. It may be characterized as that of electronic warfare. Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs stated.
A peace treaty was signed with Lebanon and the IDF withdrew from West Beirut and the Israeli forces had withdrawn entirely from Lebanon by June 1985.
1987, First Palestinian Intifada:
The First Palestinian Intifada (Intifada is an Arabic word meaning ‘shaking off’) was the continuous Palestinian protests and riots in the Gaza Strip, the West Bank, and within different parts of Israel.
The protests were against the Israeli occupation of the West Bank and Gaza, which the IDF occupied during the Six-Day war in 1967.
The First Intifada lasted until the Madrid Conference in 1991. The peace conference was hosted by Spain with the help of the USA and the Soviet Union to revive the peace process between Israel and Palestine.
The Madrid Conference paved the way for the Oslo Accords. The main saying of the accord was the establishment of the Palestinian interim Self-government and the Palestinian National Authority (PNA). It also called for the withdrawal of the IDF from the Gaza Strip and West Bank.
2000, Second Palestinian Intifada:
In the year 2000, the Palestinians started suicide bombing and other attacks against Israeli forces.
The one reason for the Second Intifada that was described in the UN report, a failed Camp David Peace agreement that was held between Palestine and Israel and hosted by the US. In this peace talk, The Palestinian leader Yaser Arafat and the Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak were invited in the presence of US President Bill Clinton to end the long-lasting conflict. But the summit ended without an agreement and then the Palestinians put more pressure on Israel to withdraw from the occupied Gaza Strip and West Bank started the attacks and suicide bombing against Israel.
Another reason for the start of the Second Intifada as described by The Guardian was Ariel Sharon, a Likud party leader who made a provocative visit to the Muslim’s holiest site Al-Aqsa mosque. Surrounded by hundreds of Israeli riot Police, Sharon and some other party candidates marched up to the Haram Al-Sharif, the site of the Golden Dome of the Rock, which is the third holiest site in Islam. He came with a statement, “The Temple Mount is in our hands and will remain in our hands. It is the holiest site in Judaism and it is the right of every Jew to visit the Temple Mount.”
The young Palestinians threw stones, rubbish bins and whatever came to their hands at Police. The riots broke out among Palestinians and Israeli forces resulting in clashes and violent protests throughout Palestine and within Israel. The Islamic Resistance Movement, Hamas, declared ‘A day of rage’ on October 6, 2000. They urge Palestinians to attack Israeli troops and their outposts everywhere within or outside of Israeli territory.
The resulting violence lasted for years, and several ceasefire efforts failed during that period. At the end of the second Intifada in 2005, about 3200 Palestinians and 1000 Israelis were killed. These Intifada’s show the level of resistance by the Palestinians in Israel’s war history. In which people stood up against the occupiers of their own and did what they had in their hands to push the armed Israeli forces from the occupied regions.
2006, Second Lebanon War:
In 2006, Israel attacked Southern Lebanon and brutally bombed the civilian infrastructure including villages and densely populated cities.
On 12 July 2006, Hezbollah (‘The Party of God’) a Shitte Muslim political party in Lebanon launched a cross-border raid on Israeli armed patrol, killing two soldiers (According to Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs killing eight soldiers) and taking two hostages. As reported by AlArabiya News.
The action of Hezbollah was the starting point of the devastating 34-day war. The main aim of Hezbollah to capture two Israeli soldiers as hostages was to demand the release of Lebanese prisoners in exchange for the abducted soldiers. Israel refused to proceed with the deal and responded with heavy airstrikes and brutal bombing on the civilian population in Lebanon.
Israel attacked Southern Lebanon with its fighter bombers F-16s. They used cluster bombs during the conflict. Almost every bridge in Lebanon, thousands of buildings, transport hubs, and industrial infrastructure were damaged or destroyed.
Hezbollah throughout the war stood still. On the ground, Hezbollah’s well-prepared guerrilla force played a decisive role to push the Israeli forces out of southern Lebanon. According to Al Arabiya news, the guerrilla forces of Hezbollah during the war, decide where and when to engage and play out more like a dramatic action movie than a desperate battle for survival.
One example of Hezbollah’s preparedness was on 15 July 2006, Secretary-General Hassan Nasralla’s statement during the Television address, in which he warned the Israeli warship off the Lebanese coast, “Look at the warship that has attacked Beirut, while it burns and sinks before your very eyes.” And moments later the ship was struck by a powerful blast.
“Hezbollah made a lot of PR, only 300-400 Hezbollah fighters were killed and the complete military infrastructure was intact at the end of the conflict. They showed that how much you bomb you cannot crack this established force.” Explained by Thanasis Camabanis, a fellow at the Century Foundation. He is also the author of a book on Hezbollah, ‘A Privilege to Die’.
According to Reuters FactBox, as a result of the war, nearly 1200 Lebanese dead and 4400 wounded, mostly civilians including five US peacekeepers. It also caused a third of the country’s population of about 9,74,000 people to flee from their homes. According to the Lebanese government estimates, 1,25,000 houses and apartments were destroyed or partially damaged. About 60,000 foreigners were evacuated.
The UN reported that Israel used 929 cluster bombs during the war and contaminated an area of 37 million square meters.
The Lebanese government estimated the direct war damage at $2.8 billion. During the war, 15000 metric tons of heavy fuel oil also spilled onto the Lebanese coast after Israel bombed a power station south of Beirut causing a major ecological crisis.
On the Israeli side, there were 158 dead, mostly soldiers. 300,000 people flee from their homes to safe places. 2000 homes and buildings were destroyed and 9000 were damaged.
According to Israeli economists, there were $3.5 billion of economic losses due to war.
Both sides declared victory as the war ended. While most of the analysts and observers agree that Israel failed to achieve its objectives to retrieve the two kidnapped soldiers alive.
According to a spokesperson of UNIFIL – the UN peacekeeping force in Lebanon, Timur Goksel, “Israel did not achieve what it wanted militarily. Hezbollah stood up to them and did not lose.”
“Hezbollah had a clear strategy from the beginning to frame the conflict as a victory if they simply survived. This was a very smart strategy, it’s hard to have imagined a situation in which Hezbollah was totally destroyed.” Thanasis Cambanis said.
‘Israel War History’ Generals:
What started the war in Israel?
Israel’s war history with Palestinians, Arabs began with the establishment of the Jewish state in Palestine in 1948. Arabs and Palestinians called it an illegal occupation of their land by the Jews and never accepted Israel as a state. This led to a constant state of fighting and conflicts between these two nations.
Why did Arab nations attack Israel?
British are the main cause of the wars and conflicts between Jews and Arabs. The state of Israel had been proposed by Britain during the 1st world war in the form of the Balfour Declaration, which mandated a separate land for Jews in Palestine and recognized them as a State within Palestine. While Arabs and Jews already have a sectarian conflict. All these reasons some-up in wars between Arabs and Jews.
Which country defeated Israel?
In modern history, after the establishment of the Israeli state in 1948, Israel only lost a handful of conflicts. During their war of Independence in 1948, they suffered heavy losses but survived. Then afterward Israel strengthened its military to a level so that no Arab state could defeat them alone. After so many wars, in 2006, the Lebanese Shitte Muslim party, Hezbollah declared a much prominent victory against Israel.
What was the cause of the Suez Crisis?
The main cause of the Suez crisis was the refusal of financing from the USA and Britain for the Egyptian Aswan High Dam construction, which would play a vital role in Egypt’s economy in the future. Blocking of funds leads Egyptian President Nasser to take control of the Suez canal and collect tolls for dam construction. The act was seen as a threat to the trade between Europe and Asia. Later France and Britain, with the help of Israel, attacked Egypt.
What were the end results of the Suez Crisis?
Egypt somehow succeeded in its aims. Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser became a hero for the cause of Arabs. Israel did not get the rights to use the canal freely but it got the shipping rights in the Straits of Tiran.
What happened in the Six-Day War of 1967?
The Six-Day war of 1967 started with the surprise attack of Israeli bomber jets on Egypt. Israeli Air Force destroyed the Egyptian Air Force on the ground in the attack. Syria, Jordan, and Iraq also suffer heavy losses to their air forces by Israel’s attacks. In just six days, Israel captured the whole Sinai Peninsula, Gaza Strip, took the entire west bank of the Jordan river, and captured the great part of the Golan Heights previously under Syrian control. While the old city of East Jerusalem came under the sole control of Israel.
Who won the Six-Day War of 1967?
Israel won the Six-Day war of 1967. They defeated the military powers of Egypt, Syria, Jordan, and Iraq, capturing the whole Sinai Peninsula, Gaza Strip, entire West Bank, and the Golan Heights.
Who attacked first in the 1967 war?
Israel attacked first in the Six-Day war of 1967. Israeli Air force destroyed the Egyptian, Syrian, and Jordanian air forces before they got ready.
What happened in the War of Attrition?
The War of Attrition was a limited war fought between Israel and Egypt during 1968-70. Egypt aims to recapture the Sinai Peninsula that it had lost in the 1967 war but failed to do so. Israel suffered heavy losses during this limited war.
Who won the War of Attrition?
On paper, Israel won the war because Egypt did not succeed in taking back the control of the Sinai Peninsula that it had lost in the 1967 war.
What happened in the 1973 Yom Kippur War?
Syrian and Egyptian forces take on Israel by surprise. Egyptians and Syrians fought well but Israel was able to defend itself well, suffering heavy losses.
Who won the 1973 Israel Egypt War?
Egypt claimed victory in 1973, but Israel fought well and was able to defend its territory against the surprise attack.
Why did Israel invade Lebanon in 1982?
In 1982, Israel attacked Lebanon and bombed Beirut and Southern Lebanon for flattened the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO).
How long did the 1982 Lebanon war last?
The war ended in two phases. The first phase or short-term peace agreement was signed immediately and Israeli forces expelled from Beirut. The second phase ended in 1985 when the Israeli forces completely withdrew from the Lebanese territory.
Who won the 1982 war?
Israel succeeded in the war to force the PLO out of Lebanon and later on make a peace agreement to stop attacks on Israeli forces.
What was the Intifada of the 1980s?
Intifada is an Arabic word that means ‘shaking off.’ It is the uprising of the Palestinians against Israel to force it out of the occupied regions that they had captured during wars. The first Intifada happened in 1987 while it ended in 1991 with the Madrid peace conference.
How did the Intifada end?
The first Intifada that was started in 1987 ended between 1991-92 after the Madrid Conference that was organized in Spain with the help of the USA and the Soviet Union. The conference paved the way for Oslo Peace Accords.
What happened in the second Intifada?
The second Intifada started as a result of the failed Camp David Peace talks and the controversial visit of Ariel Sharon, the Israeli Likud party leader to the Temple Mount of Al Aqsa Mosque and his statement that “The Temple Mount is in our hands and will remain in our hands.”
When did the second Intifada end?
The second Intifada which started in 2000, ended in 2005.
Why did Israel invade Lebanon in 2006?
Israel invaded Lebanon in 2006 during the second Lebanon war. Hezbollah, a Shitte Muslim Political party of Lebanon launched a cross-border raid on Israeli armed petrol, killing 2 soldiers while taking two as hostages with them. This results in a brutal bombing of civilians throughout Lebanon from the Israeli Air Force.
Who won the 2006 Lebanon war?
Both sides, Israel and Hezbollah from Lebanon, declared victory as the war ended. While most of the analysts and observers agree that Israel failed to achieve its objectives to retrieve the two kidnapped soldiers alive. Hezbollah succeeded to survive against Israel and make significant achievements on the ground by fighting a successful guerilla war.
Throughout the Israel war history, besides the 1948 War of Independence, Israel showed very much aggression to start the wars.
Israel war history presents that there is not a single decade of peace for Israel. Sometimes they attacked first on their rivals and sometimes the Arabs joined hands against the Jews.
During these wars, the Palestinian resistance groups were emerged and gain people’s support against Israel. Ultimately the Palestinian resistance became stronger and flexible which help them to survive and attack when they want.
On the other hand, Israel also strengthened its military during these wars. Now, they have made their air force almost invisible to its neighbors. Because in future wars, airpower will play a decisive role against the enemies.
Israel from the 1967 war to so on, uses the air force to destroy its rivals on the ground to be one step ahead during wars. Now with the induction of the latest war machines like the F-35s, which was provided by the USA, in the air force, the outlook of the Israeli air force looked more aggressive.
Arabs lost many wars from Israel due to their lack of unity and coordination. And also they do not have modern militaries or they don’t upgrade their defenses to catch up to the Jewish state.
- Britannica (Arab-Israeli Wars)
- Official Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs Website
- Office of Historian (By Official U.S. foreign policy Website)
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